These Drying Times

Understanding drying times for oil colour

Due to the fact that oil paint takes longer to dry than other medium, working with it allows you to be more creative when you’re painting. Changing your working days into a project is possible thanks to the use of oil colors. Painting with oil color is a popular choice among painters because of its pliable character, which is combined with the depth, purity, and brilliance of its pigment quality. Understanding the qualities of various oil colors, as well as their drying rates, can assist you in achieving the best results while avoiding cracking and other catastrophes.

Our major oil color ranges and the drying rates of various colors have been compiled for your convenience, and we’ve included important information about each of them.

Artists’ Oil Colour drying times

Artists’ Oil Colour is a collection of the finest traditional oil colors available, combining the purest pigments with the most appropriate drying oils. Artists’ Oil Colour has a buttery, firm consistency that is great for maintaining brush or palette knife strokes and may be diluted to a very fine glaze using a brush or palette knife.

Fast drying oil colours(around two days)

Permanent Mauve (manganese)Cobalt BluesPrussian BlueRaw SiennaUmbersUnderpainting White Winsor Blues and Greens (phthalocyanines)Burnt SiennaCobalt Violet and GreensUltramarine BluesMars coloursSap GreenPermanent Alizarin CrimsonOchresCadmiumsLamp BlackIvory Black Winsor Yellows and Orange (arylides)QuinacridonesAlizarin CrimsonTitanium WhiteZinc White

Winton Oil Colour drying times

Winton Oil Color is an excellent choice for artists who want vast quantities of color while still seeking economical quality. Its high degree of pigmentation results in excellent covering power and tinting strength, and its firm, consistent consistency makes it easy to work with. The 31 single pigments in the collection allow for cleaner, brighter mixtures as well as endless color possibilities.

Fast drying oil colours(around two days)

Prussian BlueRaw SiennaUmbers Phthalo Blue and Viridian Hue (phthalocyanines)Burnt SiennaUltramarine BluesOchresTitanium WhiteZinc WhiteLamp BlackIvory Black Cadmium Hues (arylamides)Permanent Rose (quinacridone)Alizarin Crimson Hue

Artisan Water Mixable Oil Colour drying times

The Artisan Water Mixable Oil Color collection was created to appear and perform like traditional oil colors, but without the use of dangerous solvents or other harmful chemicals. Water thinning Artisan produces a very quick evaporation of the water from the painted surface, leaving behind a standard oil paint coating that dries when it comes into touch with oxygen in the air. This implies that the paint film is distinct from the film produced by traditional oil color. If you look closely at the surface, you may find that it is very little sticky, which is typical.

Fast drying oil colours(around two days)

Prussian BlueUmbers Cadmium HuesPhthalo Blue (Red Shade)Phthalo GreensSiennasFrench UltramarineOchresTitanium WhiteZinc WhiteLamp BlackIvory Black CadmiumsPermanent Rose (quinacridone)Permanent Alizarin Crimson

Additional WinsorNewton Oil Colour ranges:

Griffin Alkyd Fast Drying Oil is a fast drying oil made by Griffin Alkyd. A large amount of single pigments is used in the formulation of Color, which results in brilliant color and clear color blending. Additionally, it has great drying properties. On your palette, you may spend between four and eight hours working with all of the colors in the collection. It takes 18 to 24 hours for them to become touch dry on the canvas. Keep in mind, however, that the thickness of the paint and the temperature of the space in which you are working will both have an impact on the drying timeframes of your work as well.

As a general rule, avoid the desire to lacquer your work right away once you have done it. The color must be entirely dry before varnishing may be applied, and we recommend waiting at least three months before doing so.

Also keep in mind the following when working with oil colour

  1. You should avoid drying your paintings in complete darkness or in high humidity since these conditions might cause the oil to discolor. When working with oil colors, adopt the notion of “slow drying over quick drying” as a guideline. To minimize cracking, fast drying colors should be used consistently as underlayers throughout the painting. Explore our variety of drying mediums for oil colors to see how they may be used to adjust the drying periods of different colors. In addition to changing the pace of drying, the gloss and texture of the color are affected by WinsorNewton Artists’ Painting Medium. WinsorNewton Liquin Original, which increases the drying rate by about 50%, is recommended if you wish to speed up the drying process.

More information may be found in our guide on the three rules of working with oil color. You can find out more about Artisan Water Mixable Oil Color by reading our profile on artist Marcus Coates’ work, which delves further into this unusual color palette.

Dehydrating fruit pretreatment & drying times + chart

For further information, please see our guide on the three rules of working with oil color. More information about Artisan Water Mixable Oil Color may be found in our profile on artist Marcus Coates’ work, which delves into this unusual color palette.


Wash the fruit well to remove any dirt, dust, or insects from the skin; this is especially necessary if you intend to eat the fruit with the skin still on. Using a clean cloth or a paper towel, pat the fruit dry. Remove any flaws as well as the core, pips, and stones from the fruit. Then, if necessary, pre-treat the area.


Skins and peel have an impact on the taste, texture, and look of the dish – but whether you remove them or leave them on is a matter of personal opinion. As long as the skin is edible, it can be left on the meat. The skins on these granny smithapple and cinnamon chips are both attractive and pleasantly chewy, thanks to the addition of cinnamon. For example, you may opt to remove the skins off fruits that naturally cover themselves with wax, such as figs, grapes, and prunes, or from non-organic vegetables, in order to reduce your exposure to pesticides.


One of the most important factors in achieving equal drying is ensuring that your fruit is sliced to a constant thickness. Not all fruits, on the other hand, can be sliced or cooked in the same manner. Cut the fruits in a variety of ways to ensure that they are adequately dehydrated depending on their size, shape, and amount of water contained within. For a guide to individual fruits, see the chart at the bottom of this piece. The nicest aspect about dehydrating little fruit, such as berries, is that they require very little preparation before they are ready to be used.

With a simple pre-treatment, such as the one described below, you may cut the dehydration period by several hours while still keeping the little fruits intact.

When preparing big quantities of food for drying, a mandolin comes in helpful since it allows you to slice uniformly thin slices of food.

If the meal is any thicker than this, it may not dry uniformly throughout.

There are some fruits that just do not adhere to the normal cutting guidelines. Pliable fruits such as mango are particularly difficult to slice into uniform pieces (do your best), and because melons are mostly water, it’s better to cut them into 10-15 mm pieces before eating them.


It is a term used to describe a variety of treatments that are performed before to dehydration in order to assist maintain color and flavor, enhance rehydration time and texture, and extend shelf life of the product. Because fruit contains enzymes that breakdown in a different manner than vegetables, pre-treatment is (mainly) an optional step. However, if you want to store your dried fruits for an extended period of time, pre-treatment has certain advantages.


It is the addition of a sulphur or sulfate preservative prior to drying that gives commercially produced dried fruit their vibrant color. This is something we do not suggest you do! Fortunately, there are a variety of straightforward and natural preserving choices. Generally, this treatment is performed for purely aesthetic reasons (to prevent browning on fruits such as bananas, apples, pears, and stone fruit), but it also has the additional benefits of extending shelf life, inhibiting the growth of potentially harmful bacteria, and improving the flavor of delicately flavoured fruits.

  • The most basic form is freshly squeezed lemon juice, which we found to be the most effective.
  • Dip the fruit in the solution for 1-5 minutes, then drain well.
  • It’s worthwhile to try them all and discover which one you like.
  • However, this method may not coat the fruit as effectively as soaking.


Blanching is the process of briefly immersing fresh fruit in hot water. A pre-treatment to perforate the skin in order to speed up the drying period or help remove the skins entirely is carried out in this manner. If you do wish to remove the skins from fruits such as peaches or tomatoes, boil them for 1-2 minutes, or until the skins begin to crinkle and lift, before removing them. After that, submerge them for another 60 seconds in cold water. The skins will readily peel off with your hands.

For fruits such as grapes or blueberries, you can crack their skins to speed up the drying process by submerging them in boiling water just until the skins begin to crack.

Run the skins under cold water as soon as possible to prevent them from coming off completely.

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Place the fruit on the trays in an equal layer. Do not place them too close together as this may restrict ventilation and drying. Also, avoid adding new fruit to your dehydrator while fruits are in the middle of the dehydrating process, as this may allow partially dried fruit to absorb moisture, which will cause the process to slow down.


Distribute the fruit on the trays in an equal layer, if possible. Do not place them too close together, since this may prevent ventilation and drying from occurring properly.

Add additional fruit to your dehydrator only after the fruits you’re currently drying have finished dehydrating – this can cause partially dried fruit to absorb moisture, which will slow down the dehydration process.


When the fruit turns leathery and flexible but not sticky, it has finished dehydration, according to basic rules of thumb. You want it to be dry but not so dry that it becomes fragile. To put it to the test, rip it. There should be no liquid beading along the length of the rip as you look along it. Please keep in mind that there are always exceptions to the rule. Some fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and dates, will retain their sticky texture after cooking.


When the fruit turns leathery and flexible but not sticky, it is said to have finished dehydration. When dried, it should be crumbly, but not crumbly to the point of breaking apart. Tear it apart as a test. Moisture beading should be absent along the length of the rip when inspected. Please keep in mind that there are always exceptions to the general rule of thumb. Several fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and dates, will retain their sticky texture after being cooked.

For more information on dehydrating go toyour guide to dehydrating fruit and vegetablesor pretreatmentdrying times chart for vegetables.

Herbs may be preserved in a variety of ways, the simplest being drying. Simply expose the leaves, blossoms, or seeds to warm, dry air to get the desired effect. Allow the herbs to dry in a well-ventilated location until the moisture has evaporated completely. It is not suggested to dry herbs in the sun since the flavor and color of the herbs will be diminished. Generally, the optimum time to gather most herbs for drying is just before the flowers open, when they are in the stage of bursting bud development.

  1. Avoid damaging the leaves if at all possible.
  2. Remove excess moisture from herbs by rinsing them in cold water and gently shaking them.
  3. Because the temperature and air circulation can be regulated, dehydrator drying is a quick and convenient method of drying high-quality plants.
  4. In places with high humidity, temperatures as high as 125°F may be required for proper ventilation.
  5. Drying periods might range from one to four hours.
  6. When herbs crumble, they are dry, and when stems are bowed, they shatter.
  7. Herbs that are less tender Herbs that are more resistant to drying, such as rosemary, sage, thyme, summer savory, and parsley, are the most straightforward to dry without the use of a dehydrator.

Although air drying outside is frequently possible, drying indoors typically yields in superior color and flavor retention.

To dry tender-leaf herbs or herbs with seeds, place them in paper bags and hang them to dry.

To preserve herbs, place a small bunch (big amounts will mold) in a plastic bag and secure the top with a rubber band.

Anything that falls off, such as leaves or seeds, will be trapped in the bottom of the bag.

For places with high humidity, this method will perform better than air drying complete stems.

Place the leaves on a paper towel, making sure that no two leaves come into contact.

This approach allows for the drying of up to five layers at the same time.

The oven light on an electric range, or the pilot light on a gas range, provides enough heat for overnight drying to be successful.

When just tiny quantities of herbs need to be dried, microwave ovens are a convenient and quick solution.

They are ready to be packaged and kept when the leaves are crispy and dry and crumple readily when squeezed between the fingers.

A simple method of removing seed husks is to rub the seeds together in between your palms and blow away the chaff.

Those that have been dried are often three to four times more potent than herbs that have been fresh.

This document was taken from the sixth edition of “So Easy to Preserve” published in 2014.

University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin 989, Athens, Georgia Extension Foods Specialists Elizabeth L. Andress, Ph.D., and Judy A. Harrison, Ph.D., have revised the document. top of the page

Estimating air-drying times of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs

Logs of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir timber have the potential to be used in a variety of applications. Many of the potential applications for logs need some degree of drying. However, even though these modest diameters are regarded small in the forestry context, their size is significant when compared to the dimensions of conventional timber thickness measures. These logs, on the other hand, may necessitate an unreasonably extended kiln drying period. Although air-drying is a reasonable alternative to kiln drying, calculating air-drying timeframes is challenging due to the numerous factors involved.

Multiple linear and nonlinear regression models were developed using this data to connect daily moisture content (MC) loss to MCat the start of the day, average daily temperature and relative humidity, as well as log diameter.


Simpson, William T., and Wang, Xiping, published in 2004. Estimating the drying time of small-diameter ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir logs in an open environment. pp. 24-28 in Forest Products Journal, volume 54, number 12 (December 2004).

Practicalities in Air-Drying Lumber – Oklahoma State University

Written by Salim Hiziroglu and Kenny Hitch The drying of timber is a critical step in the production of wood products that is essential for their optimal usage. A freshly harvested tree will have a large quantity of moisture that has been retained inside the cells of the wood. For example, a 17-foot log that is 18 inches in diameter at breast height and has several inches of sapwood may contain roughly 130 gallons of water in its cells when measured at breast height. The water in the log accounts for more than half of the overall weight of the tree.

  1. Once the moisture content has been decreased to an acceptable level, proper gluing and finishing will not be feasible to achieve.
  2. This information sheet provides an overview of some of the practical considerations associated with air drying timber.
  3. During the air drying process, the primary goal is to remove as much moisture from the timber as possible.
  4. When air drying timber, it is customary to leave it on stickers in the yard until the moisture content reaches roughly 20 percent.
  5. For every species, the needed air drying time is greater than the required kiln drying time.
  6. Air drying is the best way for drying timber that will be utilized in a high moisture content application or as a pre-drying process before kiln drying is performed.
  7. Lumber quality and drying time are closely connected to the moisture level of the lumber at the time of harvesting as well as the differential in moisture content between the wood and the surrounding environment during harvesting.
  8. It is termed the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood at this moment, and it is a function of both the relative humidity of the surrounding air and the amount of moisture in the wood.
  9. The relative humidity of a room is measured with the use of a hygrometer, which is made up of both wet and dry bulb thermometers.
  10. It is possible to calculate relative humidity from Table 2 by taking into account the difference between these two temperatures.

For example, if the temperatures of the wet bulb and dry bulb are 70°F and 75°F, respectively, the relative humidity will be 78 percent of the total humidity. Table 1.Average air drying time for various species, according to the species.

Hardwoods Drying Time (Days) Softwoods Drying Time (Days)
Red oak 70-200 Douglas fir 20-200
White oak 80-250 Eastern hemlock 90-200
Big leaf maple 60-180 White pine 60-200
Red maple 30-120 Redpine 40-200
Silver maple 30-120 White spruce 30-120
Sugar maple 50-200 Sitka spruce 40-150
Birch 50-200 Western larch 60-120
Beech 70-200 Loblolly pine 30-150
Aspen 50-150 Engelmann spruce 20-120
Ash 60-200 Sugar pine 15-90
Alder 20-180 Redwood 60-185
Yellow poplar 40-150 Ponderosa pine 15-150

EMC values as well as relative humidity are shown in Table 2. “(Relative humidity values are displayed in italic form, and EMC values are displayed in bold.) Temperature difference between wet-bulb and dry-bulb (in degrees Fahrenheit)

1 2 3 4 5
35 90 81 72 63 54
16.8 13.9 11.9 10.3
40 92 83 75 68 60
17.6 14.8 12.9 11.2
45 93 85 78 72 64
18.3 15.6 13.7 12
50 93 86 80 74 68
19 16.3 14.4 12.7
55 94 88 82 76 70
19.5 16.9 15.1 13.4
60 94 89 83 78 73
19.9 17.4 15.6 13.9
65 95 90 84 80 75
20.3 17.8 16.1 14.4
70 95 90 86 81 77
20.6 18.2 16.5 14.9
75 95 91 86 82 78
20.9 18.5 16.8 15.2
80 96 91 87 83 79
21 18.7 17 15.5
85 96 92 88 84 80
21.2 18.8 17.2 15.7
90 96 92 89 85 81
21.3 18.9 17.3 15.9
95 96 92 89 85 82
21.3 19 17.4 16.1
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6 7 8 9 10
35 45 37 28 19 11
8.8 7.4 6 4.5 2.9
40 52 45 37 29 22
9.9 8.6 7.4 6.2 5
45 58 51 44 37 31
10.7 9.5 8.5 7.5 6.5
50 62 56 50 44 38
11.5 10.3 9.4 8.5 7.6
55 65 60 54 49 44
12.2 11 10.1 9.3 8.4
60 68 63 58 53 48
12.7 11.6 10.7 9.9 9.1
65 70 66 61 56 52
13.3 12.1 11.2 10.4 9.7
70 72 68 64 59 55
13.7 12.5 11.6 10.7 10.1
75 74 70 66 62 58
14 12.9 12 11.2 10.5
80 75 72 68 64 61
14.3 13.2 12.3 11.5 10.9
85 76 73 70 66 63
14.5 13.5 12.5 11.8 11.2
90 78 74 71 68 65
14.7 13.7 12.8 12 11.4
95 79 75 72 69 66
14.9 13.9 12.9 12.2 11.6
11 12 13 14 15 16
35 3
40 15 8
3.5 1.9
45 25 19 12 6
5.3 4.2 2.9 1.5
50 32 27 21 16 10 5
6.7 5.7 4.8 3.9 2.8 1.5
55 39 34 28 24 19 14
7.6 6.8 6 5.3 4.5 3.6
60 43 39 34 30 26 21
8.3 7.6 6.9 6.3 5.6 4.9
65 48 44 39 36 32 27
8.9 8.3 7.7 7.1 6.5 5.8
70 51 48 44 40 36 33
9.4 8.8 8.3 7.7 7.2 6.6
75 54 51 47 44 41 37
9.8 9.3 8.7 8.2 7.7 7.2
80 57 54 50 47 44 41
10.1 9.7 9.7 8.6 8.1 7.7
85 59 56 53 50 47 44
10.5 10 9.5 9 8.5 8.1
90 61 58 55 51 49 47
10.7 10.2 9.7 9.3 8.8 8.4
95 63 60 57 55 52 49
11 10.5 10 9.5 9.1 8.7

Stacking of the lumber in air drying

Proper stacking of timber is the first step in assuring high-quality lumber from any drying operation. A multitude of issues like as warping, twisting, bending, staining, and longer drying time can arise as a result of incorrect stacking practices. Before stacking, lumber should be sorted depending on grade, starting moisture content, species, thickness, and length in order to minimise drying time and deterioration of the wood products. Stacks should be sorted according to thickness to provide uniform air flow across the stack and to avoid drying flaws such as cupping and twisting.

  • It is important to keep the area between the boards as open as possible in order to maximize air movement.
  • Stickers should be put at the ends of each foundation block and above each foundation block for each successive layer.
  • In the case of 1 inch hardwoods, the distance between stickers should be between 16 and 24 inches.
  • In order to prevent warping inside the layers of timber, it is important that the stickers are meticulously aligned when each new layer is set down.
  • In some species, the choice of sticker material can be critical in preventing sticker stain from forming.
  • A number of separate stacks of timber may be piled on top of one another as long as the buttress between stacks is appropriately aligned with the stickers on the individual stacks of lumber.
  • The location of lumber stacks inside the wood yard will have an impact on the effectiveness of any air drying operations that take place.
  • Stacks are often placed parallel to the prevailing winds in order to avoid the upwind stack from obstructing air flow to other stacks in the vicinity.

Modifications of the air drying process

However, despite the fact that air drying is ultimately dependent on weather conditions, drying periods may be lowered and air quality can be improved by making simple alterations to the typical air drying procedure. Air drying processes that have been modified may be roughly classified into four types. There are four types of shed fans: shed fan with heating, shed fan without heating, and outside under cover. The primary goal of these improvements is to minimize drying time and enhance timber quality by shielding the lumber pile from rain and excessive sun exposure, enhancing air circulation, and ensuring that the temperature of the surrounding air is distributed uniformly throughout the pile.

One of the four modified air drying processes, shed fan air drying, is the most often employed of the four.

The heated shed technique offers the advantage of enhanced air flow as well as rudimentary humidity control, which helps to minimize drying time while also providing some control over product quality and consistency.

Outside, beneath a roof, and with a shed fan drying methods are depicted in figures 2 and 3.

Technique Maple Cherry Oak
Shed-fan 80 90 100
Heated shed 30 70 60
Unheated shed 100 110 120
Outdoor roof 130 150 200

Figure 2 and Figure 3.

Estimated cost of air drying

Air drying has a monetary cost, which may be determined using the following equation: Cost = T/CT: Annual drying time averaged over a year C: Capacity of the yard (bdft) Amount paid for the yard, preparation, and roadways ($) L: The monetary value of the land ($). V: The monetary value of lumber ($/bdft). r:The rate of interest x:Depreciation y:Maintenance cost x:Depreciation y:Maintenance cost Z: The cost of insurance Example: If 5 million board feet of lumber with a dried value of $500,000 dries for 10 months and the cost of the yard, value of land, and interest rate are $60,000, $10,000, and 5% of the total, the total is $500,000 plus the cost of the yard plus the interest rate.

Using this formula, the total drying cost per bdft will be 0.83 x 1,000,000 [(60,000 +10,000 +500,000) 0.05+ 60,000 (0.20 +0.15) +500,000 x 0.02] = $0.0496 per bdft or $49.60 per 1,000 bdft (or $0.0496 per bdft divided by 1,000).

  1. Dry Kiln Operator’s Manual, published in 1991. William T. Simpson was in charge of the editing. The Forest Products Laboratory of the United States Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service is located in Madison, Wisconsin. Lumber drying in the open air, 1972. Raymond C. Rietz and Rufus H. Page are co-authors of the book. Agriculture Handbook No. 402: Drying Wood with the Sun, published by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1983. The National Center for Appropriate Technology is a non-profit organization. Butte, Montana
  2. P.O. Box 3838 Butte, Montana

Professor of Natural Resources and Ecology Management, Salim Hiziroglu, Ph.D.

Kenny Hitch is a Forestry Specialist with the University of Illinois Extension.

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Drying Times and Temps in Dehydrator

Those who do not have a filament drying system should invest in one. Even spools from factory sealed packs that have not been opened might be wet enough to for print results to be ruined. It is possible for me to process up to TEN 2Kg spools at a time using a low-cost dehydrator. Normally, I dry four to five spools at a time in a drying rack. I use a Gourmia GFD1950 Premium Countertop Food Dehydrator, which is a Gourmia GFD1950 Premium Countertop Food Dehydrator. There are several comparable models available, but this one has shown to be reliable for me.

  1. Because I needed to prepare more than two spools at a time, I purchased a food dehydrator to help me with this task.
  2. I use the dehydrator cold to load the spools with no negative consequences.
  3. My processing temps and timings are as follows: My cooking methods differ somewhat from those recommended on the PrintDry website, but I have never had any spools harmed by overcooking.
  4. Smaller or partial spools can be dried in less time than larger spools.
  5. It is not possible to achieve drying simply by placing a spool in a box containing desiccant.
  6. In addition, the extrusion gaps caused by water vapor expanding in the hot end are no longer an issue.
  7. Because the Gourmia dehydrator only has a F degrees display and adjusts temperature in 7F increments, the temperatures given below are in Fahrenheit.

Initially, I dried PETG at 149 degrees Fahrenheit (65 degrees Celsius), but after few 24-hour testing revealed that my PETG is good at 158 degrees Fahrenheit, I just dried PETG at 158 degrees Fahrenheit.

It makes a significant difference in stringing when you bake polycarbonate at 158F (70C) for 10 to 20 hours.

While drying a new factory sealed spool for only 5 hours is beneficial, it is not nearly long enough.

They are simply placed in the bottom of the dryer.

Tensile strength of TPU 129F (54C) for 10 to 24 hours—low temperature indicates longer drying time.

In the case of the Ninja Flex 122F (50C) x 24 hours, it is shipped from the factory with no genuine humidity protection.

Drying takes a lengthy time when the temperature is really low. There is a significant variation between wet and dry overhang performance. Create an account before postingPosted on: 08/09/2019 8:01 a.m.

Drying Times for Corn with Heated Aeration

The 3rd of November, 2009 Corn between 16 percent and 21 percent moisture was dried using natural (unheated) air at a range of temperatures and relative humidity levels typical of November, according to a CropWatch article published on October 29, 2009. The drying times were estimated using natural (unheated) air at a range of temperatures and relative humidity levels typical of November. Sunshine and dry conditions, on the other hand, have been scarce in parts of the state, resulting in maize being harvested with significantly higher moisture contents.

  1. Consequently, two distinct management options are available: 1: Dry the corn with natural air for as long as the weather circumstances are favorable to eliminating considerable moisture from the grain, then transition to a holding strategy, keeping an eye out for any indications of heating.
  2. For additional information on retaining greater moisture grain throughout the cold, winter months, visit the CropWatchSurviving High Input CostsWeb site and look for the articleHow to Reduce On-Farm Grain Drying Energy Costs.
  3. A table on equilibrium moisture content is included in this section, as well as instructions on how to hold the grain to prevent it from deteriorating.
  4. It can assist you in determining when natural aeration is no longer an option.
  5. Increase the temperature of the air being forced through the crop.
  6. When you heat the air, it has the ability to contain more total water vapor, resulting in a change in the relative humidity of the air.
  7. Once the air is heated to 70°F at 50 degrees and 50 percent relative humidity, the relative humidity drops to 25 percent and the air’s water-holding capacity rises as a result.
  8. According to a basic rule of thumb, increasing the temperature of air by 20 degrees Fahrenheit lowers the relative humidity by half.
  9. This table, which can be found in How to Reduce On-Farm Grain Drying Energy Costs, illustrates how altering the temperature of an air mass influences its relative humidity.
  10. In the far left column, you’ll find a list of several air characteristics.
  11. The remaining cells represent the number of days it will take to dry from the given moisture content to 15 percent moisture content using hot air.

Table 2 is arranged in the same way as Table 1, but it assumes that the ambient air has been heated to a temperature that is 35 degrees above the ambient air temperature. Tom Dorn is an Extension Educator with the Lancaster County Extension Office.

Table 1. Days to dry corn to 15% with 1 cfm/bushel airflow when heated 20° above ambient air temperature, assuming exhaust air has 65% relative humidity.
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
60 ° F Heatedto 80°F Drying Time (days)
60% 30.3% 4.5 9.2 14.1 19.3 24.7 30.5
50% 25.3% 3.8 7.8 12.1 16.5 21.2 26.1
40% 20.2% 3.3 6.9 10.6 14.4 18.5 22.9
30% 13.6% 2.9 6.0 9.3 12.7 16.3 20.1
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
50°F Heatedto 70°F Drying Time (days)
60% 29.4% 5.1 10.4 16.0 21.9 28.1 34.6
50% 24.5% 4.4 9.0 13.8 18.9 24.3 29.9
40% 19.6% 3.9 7.9 12.1 16.6 21.3 26.3
30% 14.7% 3.5 7.3 11.2 15.3 19.6 24.1
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
40°F Heatedto 60°F Drying Time (days)
60% 28.5% 6.2 12.7 19.5 26.7 34.3 42.3
50% 23.8% 5.1 10.5 16.2 22.2 28.5 35.1
40% 19.1% 4.6 9.4 14.4 19.7 25.3 31.2
30% 14.3% 4.1 8.4 12.9 17.6 22.6 27.9
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
30°F Heatedto 50°F Drying Time (days)
60% 27.7% 7.0 14.2 21.9 30.0 38.5 47.4
50% 22.7% 6.1 12.6 19.4 25.5 34.0 41.9
40% 18.2% 5.6 11.4 17.6 24.0 30.8 38.0
30% 13.6% 5.0 10.2 15.7 21.5 27.6 34.0
Drying time is proportional to airflow. To adjust for airflow values other than 1 cfm/bu, divide the drying time in the table by the cfm/bu for your bin, fan, and grain depth. For example, if your airflow is 1.25 cfm/bu and the estimate in the table is 10 days, your estimated drying time would be 10 days/1.25 = 8 days.
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Table 2. Days to dry corn to 15% with 1 cfm/bushel airflow when heated 35° above ambient air temperature, assuming exhaust air has 55% relative humidity.
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
60 ° F Heatedto 95°F Drying Time (days)
60% 18.8% 3.0 6.1 9.5 12.9 16.6 20.5
50% 15.7% 2.7 5.6 8.6 11.8 15.1 18.6
40% 13.1% 3.3 5.1 7.8 10.7 13.7 16.9
30% 9.4% 2.3 4.6 7.1 9.8 12.5 15.5
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
50°F Heatedto 85°F Drying Time (days)
60% 17.9% 3.3 6.8 10.5 14.3 18.4 22.7
50% 14.9% 3.1 6.3 9.6 13.2 16.9 20.8
40% 12.0% 2.8 5.7 8.8 12.0 15.4 19.0
30% 9.0% 2.6 5.3 8.1 11.1 14.3 17.6
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
40°F Heatedto 75 °F Drying Time (days)
60% 17.0% 3.8 7.8 11.9 16.3 20.9 25.8
50% 14.2% 3.7 7.5 11.6 15.8 20.3 25.0
40% 11.3% 3.3 6.8 10.5 14.3 18.4 22.7
30% 8.5 3.1 6.3 9.7 13.3 17.1 21.1
Initial Moisture (%)
Ambient Air Properties(Temp/Rel. Humidity) 17 19 21 23 25 27
30°F Heatedto 65°F Drying Time (days)
60% 15.9% 4.4 9.0 13.8 18.9 24.2 29.8
50% 13.2% 4.1 8.3 12.8 17.5 22.5 27.8
40% 10.6% 3.8 7.8 12.0 16.4 21.1 26.0
30% 7.9% 3.6 7.3 11.3 15.4 19.8 24.4
Drying time is proportional to airflow. To adjust for airflow values other than 1 cfm/bu, divide the drying time in the table by the cfm/bu for your bin, fan, and grain depth. For example, if your airflow is 1.25 cfm/bu and the estimate in the table is 10 days, your estimated drying time would be 10 days/1.25 = 8 days.

Suggested Drying Times Between Acrylic Products

In our experience, one of the most often asked questions is “how long should I wait before applying my next layer of acrylic?” In fact, one of the distinctive qualities of acrylic materials is that they may be applied in numerous layers at the same time in the majority of circumstances. In terms of final film creation and hardness, it makes no difference what you use. However, in some rare instances and for some applications, it is necessary to be aware of at least a few of these limits in order to get the best outcomes.

  • Additionally, that the acrylic goods are applied in uniformly brushed layers.
  • When applying further size coats, it is critical that each layer be transparent and touch dry before proceeding to the next.
  • This is particularly crucial for acrylics because sizing prevents water-soluble contaminants from migrating into subsequent layers, such as Gesso, during the drying process.
  • Allow at least one hour for the initial coat of Gesso to dry completely before applying the subsequent coats to ensure that it does not lift.
  • When painting with acrylics, one merely has to wait long enough so that the gesso does not lift when the acrylics are applied to the surface.
  • Painters working in oils should hold off even longer.
  • Oil paints and oil painting solvents are hydrophobic, meaning they repel water (water-resistant).

Between C oats ofS tandardA crylics

Acrylic painters have few criteria to follow throughout the painting process, with the exception of those that inhibit the work process or cause semi-dry acrylic skins to lift. In addition, the acrylic adheres well to other acrylic paint films and dries swiftly and without problem.

If Retarder is used in a combination, it is necessary to provide for additional drying time in order to avoid partially dried paints lifting. Gloss Glazing Liquid can dry to the touch in as little as an hour, but Open Medium and Open Acrylics might take up to a full day to dry to touch.

BetweenL astC oat of Paint and the Isolation Coat?

When the artwork is finished, it is recommended that it be coated with anIsolation Coat before being varnished. Thick paints may feel dry to the touch in less than an hour, but they will take longer to become fully firm. Color lifting is less likely to occur if the hair is allowed to dry overnight. According to theGOLDEN Varnish Application Guidelines, “Make certain that paints are adequately dry before applying varnish.” If the painting is formed of thin layers of acrylics or other water-based media, it is advised that you wait a day or two before applying the isolation layer, and then another two to seven days before varnishing the painting.

If it is, proceed to the varnishing stage.

It is recommended that isolation coatings be let to cure for a minimum of one day before beginning with the varnishing process.

However, if it has been more than two weeks since the application, we recommend cleaning the surface down with a soft, lint-free moist towel to remove any surfactants and ensure optimal adhesion between the varnish and the surface.

Timeframes between Varnish Coats

In order to achieve the best results, we recommend that you wait at least 4 to 6 hours between coats of brush-applied varnish. If time is not an issue, we recommend waiting overnight. The reason for this is that varnishes are resoluble and a more cured varnish layer is longer to reactivate, allowing for a more straightforward secondary application. The use of a spray application allows for more rapid recoating. Because sprayed coatings are thinner than brushed coats, theGOLDEN Archival Varnishcan be applied at a quicker pace than brushed coats.

We may be reached at 800-959-6543/607-847-6154 or by email at [email protected] if you have any more queries.


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