Menstruation Health

Normal Menstruation (Monthly Period): Menstrual Cycle & Symptoms

It is natural for the lining of a woman’s uterus to shed throughout her monthly menstrual cycle. Women’s reproductive systems go through this cycle as part of the process of getting ready for a prospective pregnancy. It is also referred to as a period, menstrual cycle, or cycle. Female Reproductive Organs (Female Reproductive Organs)

What is menstruation?

Menstruation is the loss of the lining of a woman’s uterus on a monthly basis (more commonly known as the womb). A woman’s menstrual period is often referred to as a “menstrual cycle,” “cycle period,” or “period.” A woman’s menstrual blood, which is made up of a mixture of blood and tissue from inside her uterus, drains from her uterus via the cervix and out of her body through the vaginal canal.

What is a normal menstrual cycle?

It is a word used to describe the sequence of events that occur within a woman’s body each month as she prepares for the potential of pregnancy. The menstrual cycle is a cycle that occurs once a month. The first day of a period is regarded to be the beginning of a menstrual cycle. The typical cycle lasts 28 days; however, cycles can last anywhere from 21 days to around 35 days. The phases in the menstrual cycle are triggered by the rise and fall of substances in the body known as hormones, which cause the cycle to begin and end.

The following are the specific events that occur during the menstrual cycle and can be explained in further detail:

  • The menses phase: If no pregnancy has occurred, this phase, which normally lasts from day one to day five, is the time during which the lining of the uterus is shed out via the vaginal opening. Even though the majority of women have periods that last between three and five days, a period that lasts anywhere from two to seven days is still considered normal. Follicular phase: This period normally lasts from days six to fourteen, depending on the individual. When the amount of the hormone estrogen rises, the lining of the uterus (known as the endometrium) grows and thickens, signaling the start of pregnancy. In addition, another hormone, known as follicle-stimulating hormone, stimulates the growth of follicles in the ovaries. The formation of a completely developed egg (ovum) will take place throughout the days 10 to 14 of the development of the follicle. Ovulation: In a 28-day menstrual cycle, this phase occurs approximately on day 14 of the cycle. An surge in another hormone, luteinizing hormone, leads the ovary to release its egg in response to a rapid increase in this hormone. Ovulation is the term used to describe this occurrence. The luteal phase is a period of time that lasts around 15 days to 28 days. Following the release of the egg from the ovary, the egg continues its journey through the fallopian tubes to the uterine cavity. In order to prepare the uterine lining for pregnancy, the hormone progesterone is elevated in the bloodstream. Getting pregnant occurs when an egg is fertilized by a sperm and attaches itself to the uterine wall, and the woman becomes pregnant. Unless a pregnancy occurs, estrogen and progesterone levels fall, and the thicker lining of the uterus is shed throughout the menstrual cycle.

At what age does menstruation typically begin?

Girls begin menstruation at an average age of 12 years old. Girls, on the other hand, can begin menstruation as early as 8 years of age or as late as 16 years of age depending on their gender. Women cease menstruation when they reach menopause, which happens at the age of 51 on average. A woman’s ability to produce eggs ceases when she reaches menopause (stops ovulating). Menopause is described as a period-free period of one year, after which a woman is no longer able to become pregnant.

What are some of the symptoms of a normal menstruation?

  • A bad mood, difficulty sleeping, food cravings, cramps in the lower belly and back, bloating, tenderness in the breasts, acne, and other symptoms.

What symptoms may indicate a need to contact my doctor about my period?

If you notice any of the following symptoms, contact your doctor or healthcare provider:

  • You have not begun menstruation by the time you are 16 years old
  • Your menstruation comes to an abrupt halt
  • You are bleeding for a longer period of time than normal
  • You’re bleeding more than normal
  • This is unusual for you. You are experiencing terrible cramping throughout your menstruation
  • You are experiencing bleeding between periods
  • After wearing tampons, you have a sudden nausea
  • Your period is at least five days late, and you believe you could be pregnant. For example, you have had sex and your period is at least five days late. In the three months following discontinuing birth control pills, you haven’t had a period and you are confident that you are not pregnant If you have any questions or concerns concerning your period or the possibility of pregnancy, please contact us.

Get useful, helpful, and relevant health and wellness information and news sent to your inbox.

More health news + info

A period is defined as the passage of blood from a girl’s uterus via her vaginal canal. It is an indication that she is nearing the conclusion of puberty at this point in her life. There is a great deal to learn about menstrual cycles. Here are some of the most often asked questions among teenagers.

When Do Most Girls Get Their Period?

The majority of females receive their first period when they are around the age of 12.

However, receiving it at any point between the ages of 10 and 15 is acceptable. Every girl’s body operates on its own timetable. There isn’t a specific age at which a female should start getting her period. However, there are certain indicators that it will begin soon:

  • The majority of the time, a girl’s menstruation begins around 2 years after her breasts begin to grow. Another symptom is vaginal dischargefluid (similar to mucus), which a girl may notice or feel on her underwear when she is menstruating. An average of 6 months to a year before a girl’s first period, she will begin to experience this discharge.

What Causes a Period?

A period occurs as a result of physiological changes in the body. Hormones are chemical messengers that carry information. The ovaries are responsible for the release of female hormones. These hormones induce the lining of the uterus (or womb) to thicken, which is harmful to the baby. The lining has been formed and is ready for a fertilized egg to connect to it and begin developing. Unless there is a fertilized egg present, the lining begins to breakdown and bleed. Then the entire procedure starts over from the beginning.

The reason for this is because the majority of girls and women get their periods once a month.

How Does Ovulation Relate to Periods?

In biology, ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovaries (pronounced: ov-yoo-LAY-shun). One of the ovaries releases an egg when the hormones that induce the uterine lining to thicken cause an egg to form in another ovary. From the egg reaches the uterus, the egg travels through a narrow channel known as the fallopian tube. A fertilized egg adheres to the wall of the mother’s uterus, where it grows and develops into a baby over the course of several months. If the egg does not get fertilized, the uterine lining breaks down and leaks, resulting in the occurrence of a period.

Do Periods Happen Regularly When Menstruation Starts?

It is possible that a girl’s period will not come on a regular basis during the first few years after she begins to have it. At first, this is quite natural. By the time a girl reaches the age of 2–3 years following her first period, her periods should be occurring once every 4–5 weeks.

Can a Girl Get Pregnant as Soon as Her Period Starts?

Yes, a woman can become pregnant as soon as her period begins. It is possible for a girl to become pregnant immediately before her first period. This is due to the fact that a girl’s hormones may already be active. It is possible that the hormones contributed to the formation of the uterine wall. Even if a woman has never had a period, she can become pregnant if she engages in sexual activity.

How Long Do Periods Last?

In most cases, periods last roughly 5 days. A period, on the other hand, might be either shorter or longer in duration.

How Often Does a Period Happen?

In most cases, periods occur once every 4–5 weeks on average. Some females, on the other hand, have periods that are a bit less or a little more often.

Should I Use a Pad, Tampon, or Menstrual Cup?

You have a number of options when it comes to dealing with menstrual bleeding. It is possible that you may need to experiment a little in order to determine what works best for you. Some girls stick to a single approach, while others alternate between several distinct ways.

  • When a female first gets her period, she is most likely to utilize pads. Pads are composed of cotton and are available in a variety of sizes and forms to suit your needs. Tampons feature adhesive strips that adhere to the underwear
  • Many girls prefer them to pads since they are more handy, especially while participating in sports like swimming. Pampers are cotton plugs that a woman inserts into her vaginal opening. The majority of tampons are packaged with an applicator that guides the tampon into position. The blood is absorbed by the tampon. Keep your tampon in your tampon case for no more than 8 hours since doing so increases your chance of contracting a dangerous infection known as toxic shock syndrome. Some women choose to use an amenstrual cup. Silicone is used in the majority of menstruation cups. When a girl wants to use a menstrual cup, she inserts it into her vagina. It will keep the blood till she is finished with it.

How Much Blood Comes Out?

Although it appears like a female is losing a lot of blood, she is generally just losing a few teaspoons of blood throughout her period. The average female has to replace her pad, tampon, or menstrual cup around 3–6 times every day.

Will I Have Periods for the Rest of My Life?

When a woman reaches menopause (around the age of 45 to 55), her periods will cease permanently. Women who are pregnant will not have a period for the duration of their pregnancy.

What Is PMS?

It is known as premenstrual syndrome, and it is characterized by mental and physical symptoms that occur before or during a woman’s menstruation.

Moodiness, melancholy, anxiety, bloating, and acne are some of the symptoms that might occur. After the first several days of a period, the symptoms go completely.

What Can I Do About Cramps?

Many women get cramps during their period, particularly during the first few days. If cramps are a problem for you, you might try the following:

  • In addition to using a heated heating pad on your stomach and taking ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, or shop brand) or naproxen (Aleve, or store brand),

Should I Watch for Any Problems?

The majority of females do not have any difficulties throughout their periods. However, you should consult your doctor if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Are 15 and haven’t started your period
  • Having had your period for more than 2 years and it still doesn’t come consistently (every 4–5 weeks)
  • Are 15 and haven’t started your period
  • Bleeding between cycles
  • Severe cramps that do not improve with ibuprofen or naproxen
  • Very heavy bleeding (bleeding through a pad or tampon more than once every hour)
  • Periods that last longer than a week
  • Severe PMS that interferes with your daily activities
See also:  Combining Pilates & Yoga For Balance with Tom McCook

Looking Ahead

Periods are an unavoidable and healthy aspect of a girl’s reproductive health. They shouldn’t come in the way of getting some exercise, having some fun, and generally enjoying life. To get answers to your period-related issues, consult your doctor, a parent, a health teacher, a school nurse, or an older sister.

What Your Period Says About Your Health

Numerous aspects of your period – such as how frequently you get it, how long it lasts, and how thick your flow is – might be unique for each individual woman. Some of them can provide information about what is happening on within your body. In the case of hormonal birth control or an IUD, however, you cannot rely on your period to provide you with this information. Pay close attention to what is normal and healthy for you so that you can recognize the first indications of illness. It’s something that around a third of women bring up with their doctor.

One or more of the following conditions may be responsible: problems with your reproductive systems or hormones; an infection such as pelvic inflammatory disease; some blood disorders; blood-thinning medications (including aspirin); or a copper IUD When you lose blood via heavy periods, you’re also losing red blood cells, which might result in iron-deficiency anemia, which is a serious condition.

  1. If you’re experiencing shortness of breath, feeling weak and weary, appearing pale, or experiencing a fast heartbeat, call your doctor right once.
  2. The most common reason for this is pregnancy, although other factors such as stress, a hormonal imbalance, being underweight, scar tissue, and certain medications can also cause this.
  3. They’ll be able to find out what’s going on if you experience any other symptoms.
  4. It’s also fairly uncommon to have irregular periods while you’re nearing menopause.
  5. Getting used to your period pattern may take a few of years following your first period, ranging from 24 to 38 days on average.
  6. In the event that your periods begin less than 24 days apart, consult your doctor.
  7. Some women will even have a little amount of spotting 10-14 days after becoming pregnant.

It is common for fresh blood at the beginning of your menstruation to appear bright crimson.

It is older blood that is rusty brown in color; this is what you would normally see at the end of the week since the air has had a chance to react with it.

Every month, more than half of menstrual women experience pain in their lower belly, thighs, or back for a day or two, right before or as the blood begins to flow.

Cramping (also known as primary dysmenorrhea) is caused by the contractions of the muscles in your uterus as it contracts and relaxes to expel the lining.

Some cramps begin sooner in your cycle and continue for a longer period of time.

These aren’t your typical occurrences.

You’re on your period, and you’re having problems urinating and pooping, as well as experiencing diarrhea or constipation.

It is possible that a headache around the beginning of your period every month is caused by a decline in estrogen levels or the production of prostaglandin.

Because there is no aura and it lasts for a longer period of time than other forms of migraine, you may not identify it as such.

Alternatively, your doctor may recommend that you strive to maintain a more stable estrogen level.

Despite the fact that they can affect younger women, they are more prevalent among women who no longer have periods.

Due to the fact that these growths are tied to estrogen levels, you may also develop them if you are taking tamoxifen for breast cancer treatment. Polyps have the potential to develop into cancer, and endometrial cancer can result in significant post-menopausal bleeding.

What is Menstruation?

Menstruation, often known as having your period, is the process through which blood and tissue from your uterus exits your vaginal canal. It occurs on a monthly basis, on average.

What’s the menstrual cycle?

Every month, your menstrual cycle aids in the preparation of your body for pregnancy. If you are not pregnant, it will also cause you to have a period. Hormones such as estrogen and progesterone are in charge of regulating your menstrual cycle and menstruation. Basically, this is how it all works: Every one of your ovaries contains a clutch of eggs, and you have two of them. The eggs are quite little – in fact, they are too small to be seen with the naked eye. In your menstrual cycle, hormones cause the eggs in your ovaries to mature; when an egg is mature, it is ready to be fertilized by an asperm cell, which occurs when the egg has matured.

  1. So, if your egg does become fertilized, it will have a beautiful, comfortable spot to settle and begin the process of becoming pregnant.
  2. It has a high concentration of nutrients that aid in the development of a pregnancy.
  3. Most women do not have any symptoms when they ovulate, however some women might experience bloating, spotting, or a little ache in their lower abdomen that may be felt just on one side of their body.
  4. If you do not become pregnant, your body will not require the thick lining that normally lines your uterus.
  5. It’s that time of the month again!

When in life do periods start and stop?

Your first menstruation begins when blood begins to flow from your vaginal opening at some time throughout adolescence. The majority of people begin having periods between the ages of 12 and 14, however some people begin having periods earlier or later than that. You won’t be able to predict when you’ll get it, although you may have some PMS symptoms(link to PMS section) a few days before you do. Consider consulting with a doctor or nurse if you have not received your period by the age of sixteen (or even earlier).

Menopause is the term used to describe the period-free phase that most women experience between the ages of 45 and 55 years.

You will no longer be able to become pregnant once menopause has been completed. More information about menopause may be found here. Other individuals who are connected to you, such as your mother or sisters, may have had their periods at the same time that you had your period.

Do transgender guys get a period?

Your first period occurs at some time during adolescence, when blood begins to flow from your vagina. Some individuals have their first period as early as 12 years old, while others experience it later in life. You won’t be able to predict when you’ll get it, although you may have some PMS symptoms (link to PMS section) a few days before it occurs. Consider consulting with a doctor or nurse if you have not received your period by the age of 16. More information about obtaining your first period may be found by clicking here.

Women go through menopause over a period of several years, with their cycles changing progressively over this period.

Learn more about the menopause by reading the following articles: Other individuals who are related to you, such as your mother or sisters, may have had their periods at the same time as your own.

When can I get pregnant during my menstrual cycle?

These are known as fertile days because they occur in the days leading up to toovulation (when your ovary produces a mature egg), when you have the best chance of becoming pregnant. Ovulation typically occurs approximately 14 days before the start of your period, although every woman’s biology is different. In accordance with the duration of your menstrual cycle, you may ovulate earlier or later than usual. When an egg is discharged from your ovary, it can survive for around one day, and sperm can survive in your uterus and fallopian tubes for approximately six days following intercourse.

  1. It is also possible to become pregnant a day or two following ovulation, although this is less likely.
  2. This is referred to as “fertility awareness,” and some individuals utilize it to prevent conception, while others use it to attempt to conceive a child.
  3. Some people have highly regular cycles, but others have cycles that fluctuate from month to month or even year to year.
  4. Because your menstruation might be unexpected, it’s difficult to anticipate when you’ll ovulate (even if you’re keeping a meticulous record of your menstrual cycle).

More questions from patients:

What are the different phases of the menstrual cycle? Every month, your menstrual cycle serves as your body’s way of getting ready for pregnancy. If you are not pregnant, it will also cause you to have a period. Hormones such as estrogen and progesterone have a role in the regulation of your menstrual cycle. The following are the stages of the menstrual cycle: Menstruation The first day of your menstrual cycle begins on the first day of your period, and continues until the end of your period (AKA menstruation).

  • If you have your period, it implies that you were not successful in becoming pregnant during your previous cycle.
  • Follicle Development This is the point at which your body begins to prepare for the release of an egg.
  • You have two ovaries.
  • Every month, one of the eggs becomes fully mature within the first week or so after your menstruation has ended, around.
  • During the first week following the end of your period, the lining of your uterus begins to thicken and swell again, indicating that it is preparing to either sustain a pregnancy or be discharged via your vaginal opening at the beginning of your next cycle (AKA your period).
  • Once the egg has been released from the ovary, it will travel down one of your fallopian tubes and into your uterus.
  • The egg remains in the uterus for around 24 hours, during which time it awaits the arrival of a sperm cell.

If you have a 28-day normal menstrual cycle, ovulation generally occurs around day 14 — the halfway point in your cycle, which is around 2 weeks before your period.

Phase of Luteal Development It is during the luteal phase of your cycle that the empty follicle in your ovary (where the egg exits) produces hormones that signal to the lining of your uterus that it is time to receive a fertilized egg.

Eventually, it is expelled from the body, at which time you will have your next period – and the beginning of a new menstrual cycle.

In a regular cycle, a woman’s period might last as little as 21 days or as long as 35 days.

Even the amount of days in your cycle might fluctuate from one period of time to the next.

We were unable to access your location; please search for another place instead. Please provide a valid 5-digit zip code, city, or state in the space provided. Please complete the following field. Alternatively, contact 1-800-230-7526.


Menses, menstrual period, and period are all terms used to refer to this period. On this page, you will find

See, Play and Learn

Women’s menstrual bleeding, also known as period bleeding, is natural vaginal bleeding that happens as part of their monthly cycle. Every month, your body goes through a period of preparation for pregnancy. If there is no pregnancy, the uterus, also known as the womb, loses its lining. Menstrual blood is a mixture of blood and tissue from within the uterus, with the majority of it being blood. It is expelled from the body through the vaginal canal. Periods normally begin between the ages of 11 and 14 and last until menopause, which occurs around the age of 51.

See also:  Q&A with Beyonce's Guitarist and Yogi Musician Bibi McGill

You may also have the following symptoms in addition to vaginal bleeding:

  • Lower back discomfort, bloating, and painful breasts, food cravings, mood changes, and irritability are all common symptoms of menopause. Headache and exhaustion are common side effects of chemotherapy.

Premenstrual syndrome, sometimes known as PMS, is a collection of symptoms that begin before a woman’s menstruation. It can manifest itself in both emotional and physical ways. If you notice significant changes in your menstrual cycle, speak with your health-care practitioner. They might be symptoms of a more serious condition that needs to be addressed. Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NIH): National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Menstrual Cycle

The Office on Women’s Health is thankful to the following individuals for their medical review:

  • The researchers include Kristen A. Matteson, M.D., M.P.H., Interim Director, Division of Research, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women and Infants Hospital, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University
  • Sunni Mumford, Ph.D., Earl Stadtman Investigator, Epidemiology Branch, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health
  • And Peter Schmidt, M.D., Chief

Everything on these pages is free of copyright limitations and may be copied, reproduced, or duplicated without the prior written permission of the Office on Women’s Health at the United States Department of Health and Human Services. It is appreciated if the source is mentioned. April 25, 2018 was the most recent change to this page.

Your menstrual cycle and your health

Throughout your cycle, your hormones, which regulate your menstrual cycle, can also have an impact on other elements of your health, including your emotional, mental, and physical well-being, among other things.

In the first half of your cycle (weeks one and two after your period starts during a typical 28-day cycle)

  • During these weeks, your energy levels may be higher, your memory may be sharper, and your pain tolerance may be greater. The week after your period is an excellent time to schedule a Pap test, since your cervical fluid is at its thinnest during this week, allowing for the clearest findings.

In the second half of your cycle (beginning with ovulation)

  • You may have sluggishness or forgetfulness. If you suffer from a medical condition such as depression, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, or asthma, your symptoms may worsen just before your period begins
  • However, this is not always the case. Diabetes patients may find that controlling their glucose levels is more difficult than they anticipated. It is possible that your glucose levels are higher or lower than normal. This condition may be more prevalent in women who simultaneously have symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). 1, the levels of the brain neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine fall. This, along with fluctuating glucose levels, might result in a need for sweet and starchy meals. 1

How can my weight cause menstrual cycle problems?

Your weight can have an impact on all areas of your health, including the timing of your menstrual period. It is possible that if you are underweight, your body fat levels can decrease to such a low level that you will cease ovulating, resulting in irregular periods or no periods at all. Women suffering from anorexia frequently experience significant weight loss that falls below a healthy body weight. If you are not ovulating, your body is not creating the usual quantities of hormones such as estrogen that it should be producing.

Weight gain increases the likelihood of having irregular periods or no periods at all, compared to women who are of a healthy body weight and do not gain weight.

Your ovaries are responsible for the production of estrogen.

As you gain weight, your fat cells expand and emit an increased amount of estrogen.

When you have too much estrogen in your system, your body may behave as if you are using hormonal birth control (such as the pill or a vaginal ring) or that you are pregnant already. The inability to ovulate and have a monthly menstruation can be caused by this condition.

How can I prevent problems in my menstrual cycle?

It is possible that you may not be able to prevent issues throughout your menstrual period. Many period difficulties, such as excessive bleeding or painful periods, are caused by problems with your reproductive system as a result of other health issues. Your doctor can discuss with you the possibility of using hormonal birth control options to manage excessive bleeding or painful periods, such as intrauterine devices (IUDs), the pill, a shot, or a vaginal ring, to relieve your symptoms. If you are not attempting to conceive, you should consult your doctor about birth control options.

In women, the most frequent period complaint they describe is cramping or discomfort during their period.

Keeping track of your periods and menstrual cycle symptoms can also assist your doctor or nurse in determining your risk for developing health concerns as a result of your period problem.

Speak with your doctor or nurse about your typical routine and any symptoms you are experiencing that are new or different from your normal routine.

How menstruation affects women’s health

“We need to raise awareness about the fact that many women are negatively impacted by their period. The need to shift our existing perspectives on this issue is urgently needed, according to Lena Marions. Even women who characterize their bleeding as “normal,” which accounted for around 40% of the research participants, are impacted. Because of the bleeding, approximately 2% of the population refrains from participating in social activities, and a similar number of people stay at home from work for up to five days per year.

However, just one in every four women who are experiencing heavy bleeding seeks medical attention.

There is a genetic aspect that may lead some women to believe that “this has always been the way for women in my family,” and as a result, they believe that this is the only way to be for women.

“However, it is critical to determine the underlying reason, as there are therapies available,” adds Lena Marions.

Increased bleeding tendency

For example, a coagulation issue may be the underlying cause of the condition. In that situation, the lady has a generalized elevated bleeding propensity, which should be explored in further detail. Patients who take the anticoagulant warfarin or aspirin are also more prone to bruising and bleeding. Follicular uterine hemorrhage, muscle nodules, and connective tissue in the uterus are all possible causes of heavy menstrual flow. In addition, the nodes cause the uterine surface to be uneven, which results in the uterine lining covering a wider area than normal.

  1. Heavy bleeding can cause an iron deficit in addition to the mess and practical difficulties associated with it.
  2. Lena Marions has just begun a new research project.
  3. “This is a really pertinent question.
  4. As Lena Marions points out, “there has been very little study into how women are genuinely affected by their period.” Those who want to reduce their bleeding might take use of a variety of therapies.
  5. This may be accomplished in two ways: either you pick a tablet that includes only the hormone gestagen, which implies that there will be no bleeding, or you choose a pill that has both the hormone gestagen and the hormone progesterone.
  6. Today, there are studies that demonstrate that taking the tablet in this manner is completely safe.
  7. However, for people who are not assisted by this, or who do not like to take the pill, there is a limited selection of therapeutic options.
  8. Is it really appropriate to treat a normal phenomenon such as menstruation and categorize it as a disease in the process?
  9. One part is the normalization of concerns around menstruation and the investigation of how women are impacted by it.
  10. Another component is the importance of concentrating on the atypical.
  11. It happens when cells from the uterine lining end up in the inappropriate areas in the body, such as behind the uterus, on the fallopian tubes, on the intestines, or in scars from abdominal surgery.

It is possible to have period pains that are so strong that they cause fainting. Period pains can also be chronic, meaning that they hurt all the time, even when there is no bleeding. This condition is also related with pain during sexual encounters that is felt deep in the vaginal region.

Focusing on endometriosis

Karolinska Institutet has several researchers that are concentrating their attention on endometriosis, including Sebastian Gidlöf, a gynaecologist and researcher who works at the Department of Women’s and Children’s Health as well as the Department of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology. Specifically, he discusses the limitations of conducting research in an area where there are no acceptable animal models – in this case, the only animals that menstruate are people, some primates, the elephant shrew, and one species of bat.

  • According to one explanation model, a woman “bleeds backwards” during menstruation, causing the blood to be forced out via the fallopian tubes, allowing the accompanying cells from the uterine lining to adhere to the incorrect sites.
  • It appears that the sickness is becoming increasingly prevalent.
  • Inadequate nutrition caused the average woman to get her first period much later than she does now, and this was owing to poor nutrition.
  • This is in sharp contrast to today’s reality, in which the typical female experiences her first period when she is just shy of 13 years old.
  • “It’s reasonable to assume that many menstrual periods experienced by women nowadays contain more backward bleeding and provide more opportunities for the illness to establish itself,” explains Sebastian Gidlöf.
  • The NK cells, on the other hand, have another function, which is particularly important in the uterus.
  • When it comes to endometriosis, Sebastian Gidlöf wants to find out if the natural killer cells (NK cells) are overly successful in their protective duty, such that they also guard the uterine lining that has gotten free in the body.
  • He discovered changes in the types of receptors that the NK cells produced, which in turn revealed differences in how they functioned, and the pattern remained persistent throughout numerous menstrual cycles.
  • Sebastian Gidlöf intends to analyze a larger number of women, both with and without endometriosis, in the future.
  • The contents of a menstrual cup may one day be used to make the diagnosis, according to the researchers.

According to Sebastian Gidlöf, “That would be a significant improvement over the current situation, in which minimally invasive surgery is necessary to see the endometriosis and make an accurate diagnosis.”

Younger women

Endometriosis is a significant cost, both for the person and for society, because it mostly affects young women of childbearing and working age, who bear the brunt of the burden. For women, this means that, in addition to suffering, they will be absent from work due to illness and will have a lower income. Because of women’s diminished working capacity, this results in an economic cost equivalent to that of other chronic conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, or diabetes, for the entire society.

Among these are contraceptive pill therapy to entirely eliminate the period or a hormonal intrauterine device – which is, in part, the same method as for severe bleeding.

When the period is removed, there is no development of the lining and, thus, no residual.

Menstrual cycle – Better Health Channel

  • Several distinct glands and the hormones that these glands produce regulate the menstrual cycle, which is a complicated process. It is divided into four phases: menstruation, the follicular phase, fertilization (ovulation), and the luteal phase
  • Each phase lasts for around 14 days. Heavy or painful periods, as well as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), are among the most common menstrual difficulties. Knowing when in a woman’s menstrual cycle she is most likely to conceive might help her boost her chances of becoming pregnant.
See also:  Yoga Service Trip to Rwanda

This page was created in conjunction with and with the approval of the following individuals: This page was created in conjunction with and with the approval of the following individuals:

Content disclaimer

The material included on this website is given solely for informational reasons. Information regarding a therapy, service, product, or treatment is not intended to be an endorsement or support of that therapy, service, product, or treatment, nor is it intended to be a substitute for advice from your doctor or other qualified health professional. Although the information and resources featured on this website are extensive in nature, they do not purport to be a full guide to the therapy, product, or treatment discussed on the website.

The State of Victoria and the Department of Health accept no responsibility for any actions taken as a result of a user’s reliance on the content published on this website.

Healthy periods

Women’s periods are considered to be a normal and natural part of their lives; nonetheless, many women believe that they are an intrusion or a disruption to their daily activities. Alternatively, it is possible that your periods just make you feel run down or exhausted. You may be experiencing stomach aches and pains, which are not life-threatening but are enough to make you want to spend the day on the sofa with a hot water bottle. Pain and excessive bleeding should be addressed by a doctor if they are severe, but low-level discomfort can be prevented by adopting a variety of healthy lifestyle practices.

These measures may help you improve your quality of life and significantly reduce the severity of PMS symptoms, including reducing moodiness and painful periods.


The Women’s does not accept any responsibility or liability to any person in connection with the information or advice (or the use of such information or advice) provided on the Website or incorporated into it by reference in any way. The Women’s Center makes this information available with the understanding that anyone who accesses it will be responsible for determining its relevance and accuracy on their own. Women are encouraged to consult with a health-care professional about their health-care needs.

Facts and Statistics About Your Period

Periodic vaginal bleeding that happens at the conclusion of a woman’s menstrual cycle is known as a menstrual period. Every month, the female body goes through a period of preparation in preparation for a prospective pregnancy. As the uterus grows in size and thickness, the ovaries release an egg that may be fertilized by sperm, signaling the beginning of pregnancy. It is possible that the egg may not be fertilized, and hence, pregnancy will not occur during that cycle. The body then expel the uterine lining that has accumulated.

  1. The average girl will experience her first period between the ages of 11 and 14 years old.
  2. More information about the facts and statistics of menstruation may be found in the sections below.
  3. The average cycle lasts between four and eight days.
  4. Your body is putting forth the effort to be ready for a prospective pregnancy.
  5. One of the most prevalent symptoms is a strong desire for food.
  6. Tenderness in the breasts is another typical period symptom.
  7. An increase in the hormones estrogen and progesterone causes enlargement of the breast ducts and swelled milk glands in women who are breastfeeding.
  8. While this is going on, another typical symptom is period discomfort (also known as dysmenorrhea, or “cramps”).
  9. Prostaglandins are the molecules responsible for this discomfort.
  10. These hormones aid in the removal of extra uterine lining from the body, which can cause discomfort and cramping during the first few days of your cycle.

Some women may not have regular menstrual cycles. Intense physical activity or certain medical disorders might cause irregular menstrual cycles. It is also possible to have irregular periods if you have any of the following conditions:

According to, up to 14 percent of females in their reproductive years experience painful, irregular, or heavy periods at some point during their lives. Furthermore, according to a 2012 study, 32 to 40% of persons who have periods indicate that the pain is so severe that they have to leave work or school as a result. The following are the most prevalent health issues that are associated with menstruation:


Endometriosis is a condition in which uterine tissue grows outside of the uterus. Hormones cause this misplaced tissue to become uncomfortable and inflamed while you are on your period. This can result in extreme discomfort, cramps, and excessive menstrual bleeding. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, endometriosis affects one in every ten women between the ages of 15 and 49 years old. According to the researchers, 30 to 50% of those who have the disease will develop infertility.

Uterine fibroid

These noncancerous tumors appear between the layers of tissue in your uterus. They are not cancerous. Many girls will have at least one fibroid at some point during their lives. According to the National Institutes of Health, by the age of 50, 70 percent of white women and 80 percent of African-American women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer.


Menorrhagia is defined as excessive menstrual bleeding. Menstrual blood is produced in quantities ranging from 2 to 3 teaspoons every cycle. People who suffer from menorrhagia can create more than twice as much as the average person. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, this illness affects more than 10 million women in the United States each year.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) often manifest themselves a week or two before the onset of a period. Symptoms can include any of the following: According to, PMS affects as many as three out of every four women.

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)

PMDD is a condition that is comparable to PMS, but is more severe. It has the potential to cause:

  • Depression, tension, extreme mood swings, long-lasting rage or irritability are all symptoms of bipolar disorder.

According to experts, around 5 percent of women suffer with PMDD.

Poor menstrual hygiene

During your period, poor menstrual hygiene can potentially be a source of health concerns. Bacterial concerns might arise as a result of blood and tissue loss during a period. When or if menstruation products are not available, or if essential sanitation utilities, such as clean water, are not accessible, this can represent a major health risk to women’s health. Menstrual products account for more than $2 billion in annual spending in the United States of America. The typical menstrual individual uses over 17,000 tampons or pads over the course of their lives.

Many of these goods are not easily degraded in landfills due to their composition.

Additionally, there have been claims that women incarcerated or in prison frequently lack access to tampons and pads.

These essential things can be used as bargaining chips and traded for food or favors in the marketplace. The sale of menstruation products is usually subjected to sales tax in the United States. Currently, sales tax is not collected in the following five states:

During your period, poor menstrual hygiene can potentially be a health hazard. Bacterial infections can occur as a result of blood and tissue loss during a period. When or if menstruation products are not available, or if essential sanitation utilities, such as clean water, are not accessible, this can represent a major health threat to women’s health. Menstrual products account for over $2 billion in annual spending in the United States. The typical menstruation individual uses over 17,000 tampons or pads over the course of her lifetime.

When dumped in landfills, many of these goods do not break down quickly.

Some studies indicate that people in jail or prison frequently lack access to feminine hygiene products such as tampons and pads.

Menstrual products are regularly subjected to sales restrictions in the United States.

  • Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania are among the states represented.

Members of Congress from various states have sponsored legislation to repeal the tariffs levied on certain items. Access to menstruation products might be difficult in other parts of the world as well. In Kenya, for example, half of all school-age girls do not have access to menstruation pads, despite the fact that they are a legal need. Many people also lack access to bathrooms and safe drinking water. This commonly results in students missing school days, and some even drop out of school altogether.

Menstruation is mentioned in the Bible, the Quran, and Pliny the Elder’s ” Natural History,” among other places.

During the 1920s, Dr.

After observing a nurse who was menstruation handle a bouquet of flowers, Schick came to this conclusion.

He came to the conclusion that her menstruation was the source of the problem.

The animals were killed as a result of the blood.

By 1974, researchers had discovered that menstruation taboos may be directly related to how males engage in procreative actions, according to their findings.

Period hygiene has also been a constantly developing aspect of the process.

These were a long cry from the period pads that we are used to nowadays.

The Hoosier Ladies’ Sanitary Belt was first introduced a few decades after the turn of the century, in 1902.

The first tampon was made by Dr.

His inspiration originated from a friend who shared her experience with employing a sea sponge tucked inside her vagina as a method of soaking up period blood.

Throughout the years, they have been refined and updated to match the changing demands of customers in terms of lifestyle, flow, and form.

They are also assisting in the removal of the stigma that is typically associated with menstruation.

Menstrual cups that may be reused as well as period undergarments are examples of these goods.

Much progress has been made in removing the social stigma associated with menstruation and in assisting people in caring for themselves during their period, but there is still more work to be done.

More than one in every ten girls has had to improvise menstruation apparel because she couldn’t afford to purchase basic supplies.

A vote in the House of Commons in October 2018 brought the United Kingdom one step closer to repealing the tampon tax.

Menstruating Hindu girls and women in Nepal are expelled from their homes and forced to sleep outside in huts or cow sheds until their period is over, according to this tradition.

In some regions of India, some women are compelled to separate themselves in a manner similar to this.

It is believed that the commencement of menstruation marks the beginning of a transition from one stage of life to another in various parts of Africa.

It is customary for women to reside in designated huts or cottages when they begin to experience their first menstruation.

Similarly, nations such as Canada, which eliminated tariffs on tampons and other menstruation goods in 2015, are attempting to alleviate the financial burdens associated with having a period.

They did so because menstruation hygiene is a public health issue that impacts gender equality and human rights, as well as other factors.

It is also the reason why the United Nations has included it in the 2030 Agenda. This is a 15-year plan for sustainable social and economic growth, which its designers think will contribute to the eradication of poverty, hunger, and a lack of access to healthcare.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *